Table 1.

Outlined impact of microRNA stimulation or inhibition on β-cell function and in mechanisms related to insulin signaling in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver

microRNABiological FunctionTarget OrganSystemSpeciesRef. List No.
Let-7 familyReduces fat mass; inhibits GSIS; promotes glucose intoleranceβ-cell, adipose tissue, liver, skeletal muscleLet7-KO; transgenesis; high-fat diet feeding; C2C12 myotubesMouse(18, 90)
miR-7Inhibits insulin synthesis and production; reduces β-cell numberβ-cellEmbryonic pancreas; pancreatic budsMouse(57)
miR-9Inhibits GSISβ-cellINS-1E cells, isolated isletsRat(62)
miR-26Stimulates insulin gene transcriptionβ-cellMIN6 cells, isolated isletsMouse(52)
miR-27a/bInhibits adipocyte differentiationAdipose tissue3T3-L1 cells; hMADS cellsMouse, human(31, 45)
miR-29a,bInhibits insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (3T3-L1) and insulin-mediated Akt phosphorylation (HepG2)Adipose tissue, liver3T3-L1 cells; HepG2 cellsMouse, human(24, 60)
mir-33a/bReduces liver fatty acid oxidation and insulin signaling; inhibits cholesterol cellular efflux; reduces plasma HDL and total cholesterol; reduces GSISLiver, β-cellHuh7, HEK293, MIN6 cells; J774 and THP-1 macrophages; adenoviral, lentiviral or LNA transduction; isolated isletsMouse, human(11, 48, 55, 69, 85)
miR-96Inhibits insulin releaseβ-cellMIN6 cellsMouse(46)
miR-103/107Promotes glucose intolerance and insulin resistance; hampers adipocyte differentiationLiver, adipose tissueAdenoviral transduction; ob/ob mutantsMouse(81)
miR-106bPromotes insulin resistanceSkeletal muscleC2C12 myotubesMouse(88)
miR-122Hepatic steatosis; regulates plasma cholesterol and triglyceridesLivermiR targeting; primary hepatocytes; HepG2 cellsMouse(15, 40)
miR-124aInhibits insulin biosynthesis and GSIS; downregulates INS expressionβ-cellMIN6 and INS-1 cellsMouse, Rat(4, 46)
miR-132Activates inflammatory pathwayAdipose tissuePrimary preadipocytesHuman(74)
miR-133a/bPrevents brown adipose tissue differentiationAdipose tissueWhite and brown adipocytesMouse(80)
miR-135aPromotes glucose intolerance; inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose uptakeSkeletal muscleC2C12 myotubes; db/db mutantsMouse(2)
miR-143Promotes adipocyte differentiation and insulin resistanceAdipose tissue, liverPrimary preadipocytes; transgenesisMouse, human(16, 30)
miR-148Stimulates insulin gene transcriptionβ-cellMIN6 cells, isolated isletsMouse(52)
miR-182Stimulates insulin gene transcriptionβ-cellMIN6 cells, isolated isletsMouse(52)
miR-199bRegulates β-cell proliferationβ-cellIsolated isletsRat(41)
miR-200/141Stimulates insulin gene transcriptionβ-cellMIN6 cells, isolated isletsMouse(52)
miR-375Regulates β-cell mass and proliferation, inhibits insulin gene expression and GSISβ-cellINS-1E cells; rat isolated islets; MIN6 cells; ob/ob mutants; miR-375 KO miceRat, Mouse(13, 41, 63, 64)
miR-378/378*Increases susceptibility to diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis and glucose intolerance; inhibits fatty acid metabolismAdipose tissue, livermiR-378/378* KO fat-fed miceMouse(7)
miR-448Inhibits adipocyte differentiation and triglyceride accumulationAdipose tissue3T3-L1 cellsMouse(35)
miR-483Stimulates insulin gene transcription and insulin secretionβ-cellMIN6 cells, isolated isletsMouse(53)
miR-519dStimulates preadipocyte differentiationAdipose tissuePrimary visceral preadipocytesHuman(51)
  • GSIS, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion; miR, microRNA; KO, knockout.